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Images and Media

Type In-Text Reference
Film or video (Coppola, 1979)

Coppola, F.F. (Director). (1979). Apocalypse now [Film]. United Artists.

  (Jackson, 2001)

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special edition DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

It is not necessary to specify how you watched a film - in a theater, streaming, etc. The format may be included in brackets following the word "film" when you need to specify the version used.

TV series episode (Armisen et al., 2016)

Armisen, F. (Writer), Brownstein, C., (Writer), Krisel, J. (Writer), Dornetto, K. (Writer), Wagner, G. (Writer) & Lemire, K. (Director). (2016). Pickathon (Season 6, Episode 1) [TV series episode]. In L. Michaels (Executive Producer), Portlandia. Broadway Video; IFC.

Include writer(s) and hte director for the episode. Provide the season number and episode number after the title in parenthesis.

Streaming Video - YouTube, etc. (Brenda D, 2017)

Brenda D. (2017, October 8). Subadult and patched bear around the island [Video]. YouTube.

Use the poster's real name followed by the screen name in brackets if known - Davis, B. [Brenda D].  If only the screen name is known, provide it without brackets.

Type In-Text Reference
Music album (Cave, 1996)

Cave, N. Murder ballads [Album]. Mute.

It is not necessary to specify how you listened to an album.  You may include a URL if that location is the only means of retrieval such as SoundCloud or an artist's website.

Single Song Beethoven, L. van, 1804/2012)

Beethoven, L. van. (2012) Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major [Song recorded by Staatskapelle Dresden]. On Beethoven: Complete symphonies. Brilliant Classics. (Original work published 1804)

For a recording of a classical work, provide the publication date for the version you used, and then provide the year of original composition in parentheses at the end of the reference. See 10.13 of The Publication Manual for more information.

Podcast (Gladwell, n.d.)

Gladwell, M. (Host). (n.d.). Revisionist history [Audio podcast]. Pushkin Industries.

Podcast episode (Gladwell, n.d.)

Gladwell, M. (Host). (n.d.). Divide and conquer (Season 3, Episode 1) [Audio podcast episode]. In Revisionist history. Pushkin Industries.

Type In-Text Reference
Image in a museum or from a museum website (Asselijn, 1650)

Asselijn, J. (1650). The threatened swan [Painting].

Image from a database - ArtStor, etc. (Cranach, 1518) Cranach, L. (1518).  Reclining water nymph [Painting].
Infographic (World Health Organization, 2019)

World Health Organization. (2019). Ageing and health [Infographic].

When the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.