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Online Media

Use the webpages category if there is no other reference category that fits and the work has no parent or overarching publication (e.g., journal, blog, conference proceeding, etc.). See section 10.16 in The Publication Manual for more information.

Type In-Text Reference
Basic web page with an individual author (Netherton, 2012)

Netherton, S. (2012, October 15). Diabetes in pets: On the rise, but treatable. Vetmed.

For more examples, see the APA site.

Web page with a group author (Regional Food Bank of Oklahoma, 2017)

Regional Food Bank of Oklahoma. (2017, January 23). Food & resource centers.

When the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.

Web page with no date (Faschetti & Delaney, n.d.)

Faschetti, A.J. & Delaney, S.J. (n.d.) Nutritional management of Diabetes Mellitus. UC Davis Veterinary Medicine.

Use n.d. for no date.

Webpage on a news website (Avramova, 2019)

Avramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life? Think positive. CNN.

Use this format for articles published in online news sources such as BBC News, CNN, Huffpost, Salon, etc.

Webpage from a library database with original or proprietary material  

ProQuest. (2022). Paraguay: Personal appearance. In CultureGrams Online Edition. Retrieved June 8, 2022, from

World Trade Press. (2022). Myanmar: Women in culture. In A to z the world. Retrieved June 1, 2022, from A to Z the World database.

References for works from proprietary databases are similar to journal article references. The name of the database is written in italic case. After the database information, also provide the DOI or URL of the work. If the URL is session specific (meaning it will not resolve for readers), provide the URL of the database home page or login page or the name of the database. For more information, see the APA website.

Include a retrieval date if consulting a source that is continually updated.


Cite only original content from social media sites. If you used social media to discover content and you want to cite the content, cite it directly.

Type In-text Reference
Tweet (Fitz, 2017)

Fitz, M. [@Fitzike]. (2017, October 17). Bears venture to the tops of snowy mountains for legit reasons [Tweet]. Twitter. 

For more info:

Facebook post (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018)

National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, November 28). Suicide affects all ages, genders, races, and ethnicities [Infographic]. Facebook. http://bit.ly321Qstq

This format can be used for posts to other social media services.

If a status update includes images, videos, etc indicate that in square brackets.

Facebook page (Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute, n.d.)

Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute. (n.d.) Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. retrieved July 22, 2019, from

Use the page title in the reference - "Timeline", "Home", etc.


Type In-Text Reference
Film or video (Coppola, 1979)

Coppola, F.F. (Director). (1979). Apocalypse now [Film]. United Artists.

  (Jackson, 2001)

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special edition DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

It is not necessary to specify how you watched a film - in a theater, streaming, etc. The format may be included in brackets following the word "film" when you need to specify the version used.

TV series episode (Armisen et al., 2016)

Armisen, F. (Writer), Brownstein, C., (Writer), Krisel, J. (Writer), Dornetto, K. (Writer), Wagner, G. (Writer) & Lemire, K. (Director). (2016). Pickathon (Season 6, Episode 1) [TV series episode]. In L. Michaels (Executive Producer), Portlandia. Broadway Video; IFC.

Include writer(s) and hte director for the episode. Provide the season number and episode number after the title in parenthesis.

Streaming Video - YouTube, etc. (Brenda D, 2017)

Brenda D. (2017, October 8). Subadult and patched bear around the island [Video]. YouTube.

Use the poster's real name followed by the screen name in brackets if known - Davis, B. [Brenda D].  If only the screen name is known, provide it without brackets.


Type In-Text Reference
Music album (Cave, 1996)

Cave, N. Murder ballads [Album]. Mute.

It is not necessary to specify how you listened to an album.  You may include a URL if that location is the only means of retrieval such as SoundCloud or an artist's website.

Single Song Beethoven, L. van, 1804/2012)

Beethoven, L. van. (2012) Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major [Song recorded by Staatskapelle Dresden]. On Beethoven: Complete symphonies. Brilliant Classics. (Original work published 1804)

For a recording of a classical work, provide the publication date for the version you used, and then provide the year of original composition in parentheses at the end of the reference. See 10.13 of The Publication Manual for more information.

Podcast (Gladwell, n.d.)

Gladwell, M. (Host). (n.d.). Revisionist history [Audio podcast]. Pushkin Industries.

Podcast episode (Gladwell, n.d.)

Gladwell, M. (Host). (n.d.). Divide and conquer (Season 3, Episode 1) [Audio podcast episode]. In Revisionist history. Pushkin Industries.


Type In-Text Reference
Image in a museum or from a museum website (Asselijn, 1650)

Asselijn, J. (1650). The threatened swan [Painting].

Image from a database - ArtStor, etc. (Cranach, 1518) Cranach, L. (1518).  Reclining water nymph [Painting].
Infographic (World Health Organization, 2019)

World Health Organization. (2019). Ageing and health [Infographic].

When the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.

If the slides come from a classroom website or company intranet and you are writing for an audience with access to that resource, provide the name of the site and the login page for the URL.

Type In-Text Reference
Lecture notes or PowerPoint slides (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Introduction to public health [PowerPoint slides].

(Vaughan, 2019)

Vaughan, T. (2019). HUM 3013 Week 11: The Aegean I [PowerPoint slides]. D2L.

If you use ChatGPT or other AI tools, describe how you used the tool in your paper. The APA site considers including ChatGPT's output in your paper as sharing an algorithm's output. Click here for a good explanation from the APA blog.

Reference list:

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].