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In Text Citations

You must include the author and page number in the text of your paper following a quote or paraphrase.  This indicates the source you used.  The in-text citation will correspond to the source information in your works cited page. 

The basic format for the in-text citation is the author's last name and page number.  One or both of these elements will be in parentheses, depending on the situation.  All sources that are cited in the text will be in your Works Cited list at the end of your paper.  

  • Kessler found that companion animals had a positive effect on his patient's depression (48).  
  • Early intervention results in a better outcome (Kessler 49). 
  • Kessler states a "remarkable improvement in their mood" was evident (48).

If the source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work as the in-text citation.

Students are expected to be able to cite sources in their papers ("English").

Works Cited Entry:   The citation should be in hanging indent form

"English Language Arts Standards." Oklahoma Academic Standards. 2016,

For more information, consult In-Text Citations: An Overview from the MLA Style Center and the Purdue OWL.  

If you are using a source cited in another source, use "qtd. in" to indicate the source you actually use.

Ordendall and Meintjes found that cortisol levels declined in patients that interacted with the dogs (qtd. in Hoffman 146).

Corresponding Work Cited entry: The citation should be in hanging indent form

Hoffmann, Andreas et al. "Dog Assisted Intervention Significantly Reduces Anxiety in Hospitalized Patients with Major Depression." European Journal of Integrative Medicine, vol. 1, 2009, pp. 145-148. Science Direct, 

If you are citing an non print item such as a web page or film, include in the text the first item that appears in your Works Cited list - the author name, article name, film name, etc.


In-Text: Often the next day's filming was written the night before (Heart). 

Work Cited: The citation should be in hanging indent form

Heart of Darkness: A Filmmaker's Apocalypse. Directed by George Hickenlooper, Paramount Home Entertainment,      2007. Accessed 6 Feb. 2017.