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Information Bubble

The information bubble refers to the idea that people tend to only look at news from sources that they agree with therefore not seeing any opposing viewpoints.

A filter bubble is a situation in which an Internet user encounters only information and opinions that conform to and reinforce their own beliefs, caused by algorithms that personalize an individual's online experience, based on their clicking behavior, browsing history, and search history.  The personalized web browsing gradually isolates an individual user into their own filter bubbles.  

Vocabulary: The Origin of the Term

Page from the Oxford English Dictionary defining fake news

Oxford University Press. (2022, December 22).


Fake News: Sources that fabricate information, disseminate deceptive content or grossly distort actual news reports.  These appear to be real news but are 100% false.

Biased News: A term often used to label news that provides information someone disagrees with.  However, bias in news can refer to numerous scenarios where a journalist is gearing their work towards favoring a particular group or world view.  This can be political, but ther can also be a commercial bis, a bia towards particular voices, or even a bia s towards "false balance".(1)

Misleading News: News that may contain some accurate information but that may create confusion or lead a reader towards a false conclusion.

Clickbait: Sources are generally credible but use use exaggerated, misleading, or questionable headlines or images.  These sources may also use sensational language to generate interest, clicks, and shares.

Satire: Sources that use humor, irony, exaggerations,and false information to comment of current events.

Confirmation Bias: Our tendency to seek, interpret, and recall information or evidence in such a way that it confirms that which we already believe.  For example: if we enjoy wine we may search for sites that state that wine is good for you rather that searching for "wine bad for you."  This way it ensures that what we want to be true remains true. (1)

Propaganda: The systematic dissemination of information, esp. in a biased or misleading way, in order to promote a political cause or point of view. 

Fraud: To defraud, cheat, or deceive a person.

Hoax: A humorous or mischievous deception, usually taking the form of a fabrication of something fictitious or erroneous, told in such a manner as to impose upon the credulity of the victim.

Rumor: General talk or hearsay, not based on definite knowledge.

(1) The vocabulary above is from Elihu Burritt Library ( & Oxford English Dictionary (

Political Bots:  Automated computer programs that generate political messages using an algorithm.

This term was taken from Donald A. Barclay's book called Fake News, Propaganda, and Plain Old Lies

Deep Fake: Artificial images and sound put together to manipulate media and replace a persons words, voice or both.

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