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Research & Learning Librarian

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Jean Longo
Max Chambers Library
Office 115H
(405) 974-2874

Misinformation, Disinformation & Malinformation

Misinformation, Disinformation & Malinformation


Unintentional mistakes such as inaccurate captions, dates, statistics, translations, or when satirical contents are taken seriously by the consumers. Take note that although the information are false, they are not created with the intention of causing harm


Fabricated or intentionally manipulated contents, including deliberately created conspiracy theories or rumors. These false information are deliberately created to harm a person, social group, organization, or country.


Deliberate publication of private information for personal or private interest, as well as the deliberate manipulation of genuine content. Note that these information are based on reality, but are used and disseminated to cause harm.  An example to this is leaking Hillary Clinton's emails.

(Wardle-Derakhshan Framework of Informaion Disorder, 2019)