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Research & Learning Librarian

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Jean Longo
Max Chambers Library
Office 115H
(405) 974-2874

ASA Style

American Sociological Association (ASA) style is commonly used by writers in sociology.  This guide is based on the 2014 edition of the American Sociological Association Style Guide. Please refer to the manual if you have any questions.

Learning how to cite may seem like a daunting task. However, it is well worth it in the end for several reasons:

  • To avoid plagiarism 
  • To show academic honesty 
  • To allow others to learn more about your topic.
  • To allow the reader to conduct their own research from your work
  • Not "common knowledge"

Whether you choose to add a direct quotation to your paper or merely paraphrase someone else's idea, you must cite any work that did not come from you.  That includes but is not limited to text, images, computer code and charts.

Remember when in doubt, cite it!

In-Text Citation

References in the Text of Your Paper

  • You must cite the last name of the author and publication year of a source in the text of your paper. One or both of these elements may be in parentheses, depending on the situation.
  • In all cases, whenever you cite something in-text, you must include the full citation in the reference list at the end of the paper.
  • Whenever multiple elements are in the parentheses, separate them with commas. Any punctuation that the sentence requires goes outside the parentheses. Here are some examples of correct in-text citations for paraphrasing:
    • Kessler (2003) found that among epidemiological samples…
    • Early onset results in a more persistent severe course (Kessler 2003).
    • In 2003, Kessler’s study of epidemiological samples showed that…
  • If you cite a part of a source, the citation must include:
    • Page number using p. or pp.
    • Paragraph number using para.